Who controls critical mineral supply chains for green energy?

Luc Leruth (Tbilisi University), Adnan Mazarei (PIIE), Pierre Régibeau (European Commission) and Luc Renneboog (Tilburg University)

Who controls critical mineral supply chains for green energy?


The Russian invasion of Ukraine underscored the vulnerability of global oil and gas supply chains and raised questions about the security of other critical resources for energy production. As economies transition away from fossil fuels, vulnerabilities in critical mineral supply chains for renewable energy are becoming equally as worrisome.

This infographic identifies several important minerals that are essential for green energy production, describes the threats to supply chains, and reveals that China and a handful of other countries exert significant control over the world’s critical mineral supply.

This PIIE Chart is based on Luc Leruth, Adnan Mazarei Pierre Régibeau, and Luc Renneboog’s Working Paper, Green energy depends on critical minerals. Who controls the supply chains? Produced and designed by Nia Kitchin and Oliver Ward.


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